Evaluation of some intravenous anaesthetic protocols for use in Female Desert Goats in Sudan

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Date
2015-04-18
Authors
Hashim, Awad
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Publisher
UOFK
Abstract
In this study, it is decided to throw light on some intravenous anaesthetic protocols to be used in female desert goats in Sudan. The main objective of this study is to provide baseline data pertaining to different anaesthetic phases tested and to compare and contrast the different examined protocols. This study was conducted using 64 healthy female desert goats divided randomly into eight groups ofequal size. Ketamine Hcl (KT) (5%) at dose rate of 4mg/kg body weight and Thiopentone Sodium (TH) (2.5%) at dose rate of 10mg/kg body weight were used as induction agents injected intravenously in all examined protocols. Diazepam (DI) (0.5%) at dose rate of 0.5mg/kg body weight, Xylazine (XY) (2%) at dose rate of 0.1mg/kg body weight and Medetomidine (ME) at dose rate of 10µg/kg body weight were used aspremedications, individually injected intravenously 10 minutes prior to Ketamine Hcl or Thiopentone Sodium (TH) injection. Each of the above mentioned groups of animals were subjected to treatment either with KT or TH with or without one of the above mentioned premedications, so the tested protocols were KT, KT-DI, KT-XY, KT-ME, TH, TH-DI, TH-XY and TH-ME. Respiratory rate, heart rate and rectal temperature were measured before and immediately after injection of premedications and anaesthetics at 10 minutes intervals until full recovery was attainedas monitor, using standard clinical methods. The major reflexes were monitored throughout the course of anaesthesia. The usage of the protocols KT, KT-XY and KT-ME induced significant increase in respiratory rate, while TH-DI and TH-XY exerted significant decrease in respiration. There was significant tachycardia due to injection of TH, TH-DI and TH-XY, and significant bradycardia due to injection of TH-ME. The usage of TH and TH-DI induced significant hyperthermia, while none of the protocols tested harboured significant hypothermia. 16 Thiopentone sodium containing protocols (TH-DI, TH-XY, and TH-ME) were found to have longer duration of anaesthetic phase, when compared with that observed with Ketamine or Thiopentone sodium when used without premedication. The longest duration of basal narcosis was induced with the protocol TH-ME, while KT harboured the shortest one. The protocol KT-ME induced the longest mean period of lateral recumbancy phase and KT-DI exerted the shortest one. The longest mean value of the sternal recumbancy phase in different protocols tested was induced with TH-DI, while the KT-XY harboured the shortest one. The longest mean value of standing phase was noticed with TH-DI, and the shortest one with ME-KT. There was no obviousrelationship between phases of anaesthesia and regained time of selected reflexes tested. There is significant increase in total recovery time (TRT) when premedications were used prior to Ketamine or Thiopentone sodium. Also generally, Thiopentone sodium containing protocols were reported to have significantly longer duration of TRT than Ketamine Hcl containing protocols. Apnoea was observed when Thiopentone sodium containing protocols were used. The longest duration of apnoea was induced with TH-DI, the shortest one was due to injection of TH-XY. This study concludes that each of the eight tested protocols at the prescribed dose rates is safe for use in female desert goats, with variable effects on physiological and anaesthetic parameters.
Description
115 page
Keywords
intravenous,anaesthetic,protocols,Female,Desert Goats,Sudan
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