Investigation of the Environmental Deterioration in Delta Elgash Area (Kassala State) Based on GIS Techniques

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Sheah, Ibrahim Mohammed
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The main objective of this study is to investigate the environmental deterioration in Delta Elgash area in Kassala state (sudan) based on Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques and statistical analysis. One of the objectives of this study is to evaluate the potentiality of using GIS to analyze and to assess the environmental deterioration in Delta Elgash area. To achieve these objectives, different data types have been collected, handled and managed to create a dynamic GIS model for the study area. A PC computer system and professional software packages that are capable to capture, store, retrieve, analyze and display geographic features with their corresponding database items have been used. ArcGIS-9.0 software including its basic modules (ArcCatalog, ArcToolBox and ArcMap) was used to develop the GIS model for Delta Elgash area on a PC Pentium IV computer. A wide range of procedures was implement and applied. The test carried out in this study consists of four phases. Phase one concerns with the data acquisition. The availability of the test data was a real problem faced the researcher when this research work was being carried out. However, different analogue thematic maps were collected. In phase two thematic digital maps of the study area were produced. Since all maps were available in analogue format, a lot of work was carried out to convert the analogue data in to digital ones. All maps sheets were scanned and errors arised due to this process were removed. The scanned maps were subjected to a delineation process to produce vector maps of the study area. Topology was constructed for all vector maps. In phase three a dynamic GIS model of the study area was developed. Thirteen different thematic layers associated with the basic environmental indictors in the study area have been manipulated, modeled and generated. Object-oriented databases associated with these layer have also been designed and created. Phase four is the core of this study, where, intensive overlay, query and statistical analysis have been carried out to assess the amount of deterioration taken place in the study area. GIS was found to be a powerful tool for creating an interactive and dynamic models to enhance the analysis of environmental deterioration in Delta Elgash. Frequently asked question can be solved by making use of the developed model. Analysis carried out in this study showed that Delta Elgash is suffering from a very acute and light deterioration. Approximately 69% of the study area is exposed to very acute IV to light deterioration. The percentage of the dramatic deterioration was found to be 5% (the least value of all types of deterioration). The mid and acute deterioration covered small areas. The acute deterioration was extended all over the northern and western regions of the study area. The central region was subjected to light deterioration. The far eastern region of the study area was found to be suffering from acute and mid deterioration. The dramatic deterioration covered small area at the center region of the study area. In fact the image is not surprising because the northern region of the study area suffers from lack of rain, lack of vegetation cover and sand crawl. The soil in the western region is dry. On the other hand the eastern region of the study area is a pasture region while the central region is an irrigated agriculture zone. However, the present study showed that the high degree of deterioration in the study area was found on pasture regions, traditional agriculture areas, dry vegetation regions, delta elgash vegetation regions, unclassified and Badoub soil areas. The study comes out with some recommendations. It is highly recommended that the developed model should be extended to cover other environmental indictors that may have great impacts on the environment situation of the study area and may be direct or indirect causes of the deterioration taken place in the study area. It is also recommended that the environmental specialist should work hard and give advices and directing the man of Delta Elgash area to save the land and the environment in the study area.
Investigation, Environmental Deterioration ,Delta Elgash Area ,(Kassala State), GIS Techniques