Morphology of the Heart of the Dromedary with Special Reference to the Coronary Vessels and the Conduction System.

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: Nawal Sir El Khatim Omer Babiker, Babiker
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The topographical relations of the heart of the one humped camel were studied by blunt dissection in situ. Fresh specimens were used to study the accumulation of fat, anatomy of atria and ventricles, the course and distribution of coronary vessels, the location of the sinoatrial and atriovetricular nodes, the distribution of Purkinje fibres and the presence of os cordis. Two hearts were injected with radio-opaque material and other four were injected with vinyl acetate. Small pieces of tissues from different parts of the heart were used for histological studies. General histological observations were made on sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and special stains namely, Masson's trichrome, Periodic Acid-Schif reagent (PAS), Best's carmine, Kerchiefs and Van Gieson and Sudan III were also applied. Ultrastructural study of the heart was also included. The routine procedure for electron microscopy was followed. The heart of the camel was generally similar to that of other domestic animals with respect to topography. The arterial blood supply of the heart was provided by the left and right coronary arteries, while the venous drainage was carried by two large veins (great and middle cardiac veins) and two medium sized veins (right coronary and Margo acutus veins). The heart of the camel contained only one bone (os cordis). The heart of the camel has specialized conduction system similar in location and structure to that of other domestic animals. The conduction system consists of the sinoatorial and the atrioventricular nodes, atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) and the Purkinje fibres. Wall of the heart has three main layers: epicardium, myocardium and the endocardium. The ultrastructural study of the heart revealed the presence of thin and thick myofilaments, the pattern of A. I. M. H. bands and Z lines and the intercalated discs at the level of I band. Glycogen, lipid droplets and mitochondria were also found in the camel's heart. Golgi complex situated near the nucleus, a few lipid droplets, glycogen and mitochondria were also observed. The specialized conduction system of the heart was made up of modified cardiac muscle cells which were smaller in size in the nodes but the Purkinje fibres were relatively larger than the ordinary cardiac muscle fibres. The atrial myocardiurn contained spherical secretory granules near the Golgi complex.
Morphology of the Heart of the Dromedary with Special Reference to the Coronary Vessels and the Conduction System