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    The Cephalometric Norms of Afro-Arab Population
    (University of Khartoum, 2021-12) Muathe Abdulghani Younso ; Amal H. Abuaffan
    O b j e c t i v e s : We a i m e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s k e l e t a l a n d d e n t a l c e p h a l o m e t r i c n o r m s f o r S u d a n e s e a d u l t s . Materials and Methods: A total of 106 lateral cephalograms (51 males and 55 females) aged 18–25 years with Class I occlusion and well‑balanced profile were enrolled in this study. Twenty‑seven variables were analyzed digitally by VistaDent software according to the McNamara, Tweed, and Jarabak analysis. Results: A statistically significant difference between genders was found in the skeletal variables (sella‑nasion‑B point angle, A point‑nasion‑B point angle, facial plane angle, Y‑axis, mandibular to anterior cranial base angle, mandibular to Frankfort horizontal plane angle, mandibular to maxillary plane angle, anterior cranial base length, posterior facial height, anterior facial height, lower anterior facial height, effective maxillary length, effective mandibular length, and maxilla‑mandibular difference) and dental variables (maxillary incisor to anterior cranial base angle, mandibular incisor to Frankfort horizontal plane angle, and lower incisor edge to A point‑pogonion line distance). Skeletally, Sudanese males had more prognathic maxilla and more prominent chin. The males had longer midfacial lengths and mandibular lengths. Sudanese adults had a tendency toward bimaxillary protrusion with slight dental proclination than Arab, and less protrusion compared with African or African American populations. Conclusion: The results give a better insight for proper diagnosis and treatment planning for Sudanese orthodontic and orthognathic patients.
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    Influence of different power outputs and times on shear bond strength and scanning electron microscopy evaluation of bonded brackets using ER,CR:YSGG laser
    (University of Khartoum, 2022-02-25) Ahmed Abdo Bagwan ; Amal H. Abuaffan
    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of different power outputs and times on the shear bond strength (SBS), surface texture and mode failure of brackets bonded to enamel etched with erbium (Er,Cr:YSGG) or acid. Material and Methods: The study used 205 human premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Twenty-five teeth were not subjected to shear testing but were prepared for scanning electron microscopy. The data was analyzed by Mann–Whitney U-test. Adhesive Remnant Index scores were also taken into account, and P < 0.05 was deemed significant for all tests. Results: The SBS obtained from 1 W laser irradiation was remarkably lower than those obtained from other laser groups, and 1.5, 2 and 2.5 W laser irradiations could etch enamel. Conclusion: The Er,Cr:YSGG laser can be used as a substitute for acid etching to obtain the required bond strength and is safe to use on enamel surface in a short period of time (5 or 10 s). However, it has deleterious effects when used in prolonged time and increased power sitting.
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    Effects of Er, Cr: YSGG Laser on Shear Bond Strength of the Orthodontic Brackets for 5 and 10 Seconds: An In Vitro Study
    (University of Khartoum, 2022-03-27) Amal H. Abuaffan ; Ahmed A. Bagwan ; Ali Alrahlah ; Talat Hassan AL-Gunaid
    Objectives. *e study designed to compare the effect of erbium, chromium: yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser at different power outputs and short periods of time (5 and 10 s) and acid etching on the shear bond strength (SBS) and failure mode of metallic orthodontic brackets. Material and methods. A total of sixty-nine human premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes were used. 60 teeth were randomly assigned to one of the five treatment groups. (n � 12): group 1: 37% phosphoric acid etching and groups 2–5: the enamel surface irradiated by the Er, Cr: YSGG laser operated at different power outputs (1 W, 1.5 W, 2 W, and 2.5 W), each laser group was divided into two subgroups (n � 6) according to exposure time (5 s and 10 s). Nine teeth were not subjected to SBS testing but were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). *e nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis test was used to evaluate the data; the SBS and adhesive remanent index (ADI) were evaluated. Results. *e mean SBS for all laser groups and the acid-etched group were comparable, with no significant differences except for the 1 W group for 5 and 10 s and the 1.5 W group for 5 s. For the ARI scores, no statistically significant difference was found among the groups (P � 0.059), and the majority of the samples had ARI type 2 or 3. Conclusion. *e laser irradiation at 2 and 2.5 W for 5 s was similar to that produced by acid etching, whereas the laser irradiation at 2 and 2.5 W at 10 s was higher compared with that obtained with acid etching and adequate to etch the enamel.
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    Validity of the Demirjian and Fishman Methods for Predicting Chronological Age Amongst Yemeni Children
    (University of Khartoum, 2019) Maktoom A. Alqadi ; Amal H. Abuaffan
    abstract: Objectives: Tere has been an increasing need for reliable chronological age (CA) estimation in several aspects, including orthodontic treatment needs and legal, civil and forensic purposes. Tis study aimed to assess the validity of the Demirjian and Fishman methods in predicting the CA of Yemeni children. Methods: Tis descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at seven schools in Sana’a, Yemen, between December 2016 and December 2017. One orthopantomograph and one left hand-wrist X-ray were obtained for each child to calculate the dental age (DA) and skeletal age (SA) which were correlated and compared with the CA. Results: A total of 358 Yemeni children aged 8–16 years were included in this study. Te mean CA, DA and SA were 12.00 ± 2.25, 11.34 ± 2.42 and 12.39 ± 1.65 years, respectively. Te Demirjian method signifcantly underestimated the CA by 0.58 ± 1.25 years in the total sample and 0.73 ± 1.30 and 0.40 ± 1.17 years in males and females, respectively (P <0.001). Te Fishman method signifcantly underestimated the CA by 0.23 ± 1.19 and 0.44 ± 1.26 years in the total sample and in males, respectively (P ≤0.02). Te Fishman method insignifcantly underestimated the females CA by 0.02 ± 1.08 years (P = 0.898). Conclusions: Yemeni CA is highly correlated to DA and SA estimated by the Demirjian and Fishman methods, respectively. Te Fishman method was more accurate amongst Yemeni females. Results showed that Yemeni children are delayed in dental development and skeletal maturity.
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    Assessment of sagittal jaw relationship in a sample of Sudanese orthodontic patients: a cephalometric study
    (University of Khartoum, 2019) Amal H. Abuaffan ; Mohand Elsherif
    Objectives: Assessment of sagittal jaw relationship is an important step in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. The purpose of the present study was to assess the reliability and correlation of seven cephalometric parameters in assessment of sagittal jaw relationship for Sudanese orthodontic patients. Materials and methods: A total of 107 pretreatment cephalometric radiographs from the Orthodontic Department archive at the 8niversity of .hartoum that fulȴlled the inclusion criteria were included in the present study. Each radiograph was manually traced; ANB angle, Wits appraisal, APP-BPP distance, Beta angle, W angle, Yen angle and anteroposterior dysplasia indicator APDΖ were identiȴed. The sample was divided into Class I, II and III skeletal groups based on each measurement separately. Person’s correlation analysis was performed to assess the reliability and correlation between the measurements among the various study groups (P value = 0.0 level of signiȴcance . Results: W angle was the most reliable method to assess Class I skeletal group, as it showed signiȴcant and correct correlations with all measurements except APP-BPP distance (P = 0.163). ANB angle and APP-BPP distance were the most reliable methods to assess Class II and III skeletal groups, respectively, as signiȴcant and correct correlations with all measurements were recorded. Conclusions: W angle, ANB angle and APP-BPP distance complement each other as clinically appropriate methods for assessment of sagittal jaw relationship in Sudanese orthodontic patients.